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Derek Vreeland

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Derek Vreeland holds an M.Div degree from Oral Roberts University. He is the assistant pastor of Cornerstone Church in Americus, Georgia.

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Articles > Charismatic Theology > P.G. Vargis and the Indian Prosperity Gospel

P.G. Vargis and the Indian Prosperity Gospel

Theology Interest Group


Derek E. Vreeland, Cornerstone Church (Americus, Georgia)

Presented at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Society for Pentecostal Studies



I believe in prosperity gospel. I preach prosperity gospel within the confines of the Bible.  I tell the people who have no home, “Come to Jesus. He will give you a house.  If you are sick, come to my Jesus.  He will heal you.  If you are poor, come to my Jesus.  He will take care of you.”[1]

P.G. Vargis


From the Margin

The global expansion of Pentecostalism has caused a shift in the academic community from focusing on the renewal theologies of the West to the theologies of non-Western indigenous groups.  Emerging Pentecostal theologies through the various streams of charismatic renewal were unapologetically Western in their structure and focus.  Non-western theologies have often been treated as marginal and somewhat unimportant in the shaping of a “Western religious phenomenon.”   Yet the cry has sounded to uncover and explore these theological expressions and allow their contribution to reflect the global nature of the Pentecostal experience.  Allan Anderson, director of the Research Unit for Pentecostal Studies at the University of Birmingham (England), presented a compelling call to reclaim these “voices from the margin” during the 2001 SPS meeting in Tulsa, Oklahoma.  He writes,

A serious and extensive rewriting of Pentecostal history needs to be done, in which the enormous contributions of the as yet unnamed indigenous pioneers is properly recognized, so that US American classical Pentecostals in particular shed their often-heard assumption that Pentecostalism is a “made in the USA” product that has been exported to the world.[2]

It is a misrepresentation to only explore the theologies of Pentecostals that are sophisticated and structured according to Western academic standards.  While we in both the church and academy owe a great debt to the Pentecostal theologies of the West, we cannot concentrate our attention upon them alone and claim that they represent Pentecostalism as a whole.    This research project is an answer to Anderson’s call.  One such “unnamed indigenous pioneer” is P.G. Vargis, president and founder of the Indian Evangelical Team (IET) based in New Delhi, India.

IET is an indigenous church planting movement established in 1972.  As of March 2000, IET had ministries in 20 states in India.  Currently, Vargis has raised up 2,297 churches and 1,776 missionaries throughout India, Nepal, & Bhutan.  Vargis’ goal is to establish 7,777 churches by 2010.  The growth of IET and Vargis’ vision and passion for ministry has caused him to break out as an emerging leader in Indian Pentecostalism.[3] While research is necessary into the systematic theology of this influential evangelist, the confides of my research is upon his theology of prosperity, that is his teaching on the prosperity gospel.[4]

The Prosperity Gospel in an American Context

The prosperity gospel, as it is known in popular religious circles, has its roots in American Pentecostalism.  David Harrell notes that the doctrine that God will prosper his children goes as far back as Thomas Wyatt in the 1930s.[5] It gained significance through the independent charismatic ministries that grew out of the healing revivals of the 1950s.  Harrell adds that by the 1960s financial prosperity had “almost supplanted the earlier emphasis on healing.”[6]  One of the leading evangelists preaching the message of prosperity was Oral Roberts. Poverty and financial struggle were not uncommon for Pentecostal ministers.[7] Out of this context, Roberts rooted a doctrine of prosperity in the goodness of God.  “God is good and has something good for you today” became a slogan that applied God’s care not only for spiritual needs (salvation) and physical needs (healing), but also financial needs (prosperity). He writes,

God is interested in our every material need as well as our every spiritual need. Our continued prosperity is His will for us.  He is generous beyond all conceptions of generosity.  God wishes our freedom from both the love for and lack of material means. The love of money may be worse than its lack, but both have a terrible power to defeat us.[8]

  Essentially, the “gospel of prosperity” is the doctrine that the work of salvation includes the abundant supply of financial resources for one’s needs.  This message spread throughout independent charismatic streams and continues to today as a major doctrine in word of faith oriented churches and ministries, most notably in the ministry of Kenneth Hagin, Kenneth Copeland, Fred Price and others.[9]


The Cry of Cultural Conformity

  This doctrine is not without its criticisms.  It has been called the “cult of prosperity,” “a disease,” “a gospel of greed,” “self-indulgence and selfishness,” “egocentric,” and “a corruption Scripture.” One of the most common theological arguments against prosperity is the claim that it is a case of syncretism, a biblical hermeneutic infected by a conformity to cultural values that are non-Christian in their ethic and application.  In his observation of independent charismatic missions, Edward Pousson interjects, “…Once we allow a materialistic rights-consciousness to replace cross-bearing servanthood, we are in danger of baptizing the American dream.”[10] Other critics have gone a step further, stating that Pousson’s “danger” has been actualized – that prosperity preachers have allowed the materialism of American culture to shape their understanding of Scripture and thus produce a perverted doctrine. Quentin Schultze in Televangelism and American Culture adds,

I simply wish to suggest that worldly prosperity is a distinctly American version of the gospel, not a particularly biblical one. God’s will for our lives is far more eternal than is typically acknowledged by the advocates of the health-and wealth gospel.[11]

  Schultze captures the essence of the cultural conformity argument – prosperity is an American gospel, not a biblical gospel. If this were indeed true, then an indigenous preacher in a non-American, non-materialistic, non-Western context would not preach a prosperity message.  However, in the poverty-stricken nation of India, a prosperity message can be heard from the preaching of P.G. Vargis.

A Biographical Sketch

  P.G. Vargis was born on April 13, 1942 to Christian parents in Mavelikkara, Kerala in South India. He was reared in an Jacobite Church and formed a concept of God based on the Old Testament.  The young Vargis saw God as a rewarder of the good and punisher of the wicked and he desperately wanted to be obedient.  During early adolescence, doubts settled in.  Vargis admittedly stole from the church, but could not understand why God did not punish him.  He determined that there was no God.  After high school he entered a technical school, but gave up studying in order to pursue a selfish and sinful lifestyle.  In the spring of 1960, he attended the All Kerala Christian Fellowship, a charismatic “gospel preaching” church.  He fell under conviction of sin and repented of his selfish life.  However upon returning to school, he returned to his old habits and eventually dropped out.  Finally, he borrowed money under his father’s name and ran away.


  After gaining employment and then losing his job, he turned to stealing and soon was living on the streets. Like the prodigal son, he returned home, but did not stay long.  In constant rebellion to his parents, he again ran away.  In Bombay, he joined the Army and increased his sinful lifestyle.  He struggled with the guilt of his sin, but found no relief.  He often had bouts of condemnation that sent him running to the Catholic Church, but no degree of confession, prayers, giving or liturgy could remove the darkness of his heart.  He resigned himself to live the life of a “hardened atheist.”[12]

On April 13, 1969, Vargis found a solution to his spiritual struggle, suicide.  Even though he had been married for two years, he could find no peace in his heart. He went up to the terrace of his home with sleeping pills in hand. Before he could take the pills to end his life, he was suddenly struck with the fear of hell, a memory from his father’s teaching.  He retreated from his plan to end his life.

Vargis and his wife Lilly were soon transfer to Udhampur, Kashmir in North India.  Upon his wife’s request, Vargis and Lilly visited the Christian church of Udhampur.  They listened as an evangelist preached on what it meant to be a true Christian.  The following night on October 1, 1971, Vargis attended the meeting alone and felt persuaded to accept Jesus as Lord, but he did not immediately respond.   He slipped out the back door and caught a ride on military truck.  In the truck, he was surround by people, but felt alone in his sin.  He confessed his sins to the Lord and for the first time he felt “the flood-tide of peace.”[13]  Vargis became a Christian. Two months later, during Christmas he looked up on a mountainous hill at night and saw the cooking fires of some of the village people.  He was struck with the realization that they had not heard the gospel of Christ.  It was at that holy moment that he was called to be a missionary/evangelist.

By early 1972, Vargis was ready to resign his position in the army and devote himself to full time ministry.  He was already passing out gospel tracks and talking with fellow solders about the gospel.  He continued to pray that he would be released from the army.  He was finally discharged in September, 1972.  Now Vargis, Lilly and their newborn son, Aby where ready to head out into India to preach the gospel.  They started their evangelistic ministry in Katra, a Hindu pilgrim center in Kashmir.  They worked tirelessly for five years in Katra preaching the gospel, teaching the Bible and reaching out to low caste Hindus. They had no support for their ministry or family, but God provided for their needs by miracle after miracle.  Often they were hungry, but God would always provide.  This was “God’s Bible School”- the source of ministry training for the young evangelist.  By April 1973, 18 believers who had been baptized under Vargis’ ministry. In Katra, he started the first Beersheba Church of God.

In 1975, Vargis and his growing team of missionaries began a work in Pathankot, South of Kashmir in the Punjab state under the name “Indian Evangelical Team” (IET). There God brought together a leadership team of godly and qualified men and women who shared Vargis’ vision “to win the lost at any cost.”  In early 1977, Vargis moved the family from Katra to Pathankot. By March, they started a Bible training school and began sending out missionaries to the states of Orrisa and Maharashatra. The ministry began to flourish.


By 1984, IET had 258 missionaries and 107 churches in 8 states throughout India.  In April 1985, Vargis moved the IET headquarters to New Delhi.  From there, God opened up doors for Vargis to preach and speak throughout, India, Europe and the United States.  The motivating goal for IET was to plant 2,000 churches in India by the year 2000.  As of March 1, 2000, IET had planted 2,297 churches and had 1,776 missionaries working in 20 states in India, as well as ministries in Nepal and Bhutan.  During the late 1980s and through the new millennium, Vargis has published several books and magazines including Faith Today. Vargis continues to led the movement to reach their next goal of  7,777 churches by 2010.  

The Rise of an Indian Prosperity Gospel

No matter the degree of effort in putting on the blinders of pure objectivity, our theology is shaped by our experience. This postmodern reality is exemplified in the development of Vargis’ understanding of prosperity. It grew out of his own personal experience. In the infancy of his faith, Vargis did not incorporate prosperity into his faith.  He confessed that he believed that suffering from poverty was God’s will for the believer and wealth and prosperity were evil.[14] This was the accepted theological position on the issue for most Indian Christians.  He writes, “In Indian assemblies, believers shy away from testimonies of success and material prosperity.  We prefer to list our sufferings and losses after we accept Jesus as Lord.”[15] According to Vargis, the tendency to highlight suffering over prosperity in Indian Christianity is culturally driven. Indians who convert to the Christian faith often lose their jobs and are cut off from their families.  Out of their suffering they look to the Scripture to find verses that validate their experience.[16]


Early in his ministry, Vargis accepted poverty as the will of God for Christians. In 1981, a paradigm shift occurred. Vargis and his family were living in a one-room house in Pathankot.  In the middle of the night, he was awakened by his nine-year old son, Aby who needed to use the bathroom. The family of seven slept together on the floor and there was no toilet connected to the house. Vargis escorted his son outside into the fields.  While standing outside in the cool night, Vargis began to ask himself, “Why should my house not have a toilet.  Why shouldn’t I have a house with two rooms if God is my Father?” This experience caused Vargis to re-examine the Scripture.  Whereas before he searched the Scriptures concerning suffering and poverty to justify his poverty as the will of God, he now searched the Scripture for verses on God’s goodness, blessing, and prosperity. From this revelatory experience, Vargis came to understand and teach six principles concerning the gospel of prosperity.[17]  (1) God is a good God who wants good things for his children. (2) Prosperity is a part of salvation. (3) Poverty is evil. (4) Prosperity comes as a result of active faith in God. (5) Prosperity is more than “basic” needs. (6) Prosperity is not an opportunity for greed, but for simplicity in lifestyle. These he developed without any major influence from the West.  John Osteen, a well-known prosperity preacher in his own right, confirmed the paradigm-shift.  Osteen’s guiding influence was more conformational than foundational. And Vargis claims no significant influence from any Western faith preachers.[18]


Examining Vargis’ Theology of Prosperity                                                                                                     

(1) The foundation upon which Vargis builds his theology of prosperity is the transcendent goodness of God. Prosperity is a part of the will of God, because it is a reflection of his nature. Commenting on the prayer of Jabez, Vargis writes,

You need to have the right view of God – that He is a good God, He is a God who blesses, He is a God who wants you to be free from pain. If you assign to Him attributes that He does not have – a punishing God, a God who wants you to be sick and poor, a God who does not care – then your prayers will be limited.[19]

God does not choose to act in accordance with goodness in an arbitrary manner.  Rather God extends his hands of goodness and blessing, because it is who he is. The Pslamist declares, “For the LORD is good and his love endures forever; his faithfulness continues through all generations” (Psalm 100:5 NIV). While Vargis accepted this as a theological given, he made the connection between God’s goodness and the fulfillment of physical needs such as food, housing, transportation, education, etc. God’s goodness is realized by meeting the needs of his children.


For Vargis, this goodness is motivated by God’s love to act benevolent towards his children, just as any loving father would act.  In The Keys to Miracles, He writes, “God desires that we should be in good health and prosper. This is your Father’s will for you.  Will any of you desire that your son must go hungry or be in need or be sick? Not even a wicked father desires that.”[20] It is inconceivable that God would allow the sufferings of poverty to continue in the homes of his children to whom his goodness has been extended. Vargis observes that any good parent would not allow his children to go hungry or remain in need.  Therefore, how can a Christian envision a heavenly Father who would do less?

(2) Prosperity and material blessings are an integral part of salvation. Vargis places prosperity within a soteriological vain in his theological framework.  Vargis rejects the Western platonic dichotomy between body and soul, a rejection which is Pentecostal in its approach.  Salvation is for the whole person.  In Real Peace, Vargis quotes a series of verses describing the nature of salvation.[21] He then writes,

Dear brothers I quoted these verses to show you that body, spirit and life are involved in God’s salvation. Deliverance from poverty, sickness, curse, lack of peace, black magic all are includes [sic] in God’s salvation. It is for a deliverance from all these things that Jesus Christ died on the cross of Calvary.  He was bled to death to provide salvation for all human beings.[22]

“Deliverance from poverty” with the complimenting material blessings is included in the salvation of Christ. What God has accomplished in his plan of salvation is available to his children by divine right.  Vargis notes,

Do you need a job or a raise in salary or a better living conditions or the grace to love others, or a special blessing or even a miracle? …There are many portions in the Scriptures which proclaim God has provided them all.  As God’s child you have the right to possess them too.[23]

Vargis roots prosperity in the atoning work of Christ, thus arguing that not only are sins covered, but the results of sin, namely poverty, are overruled by the kingdom of God.


(3) Poverty is evil. It is easy for Indian Christians to adopt a Hindu worldview as related to poverty.  Hinduism with its strong determinism pervades over Indian culture.  That which comes into a Hindu’s life is an unavoidable result of karma – forces outside of one’s control. Karma is replaced with the sovereignty of God and soon Indian Christians accept their experience of poverty as God’s will and proclaim in to be a blessing. Vargis passionately opposes all such notions.  Poverty is evil and demonic in nature.  He writes, 

Do you know why I am bold to preach healing, deliverance, prosperity, salvation, blessings and peace? Because I believe in 1 John 3:8 “For this purpose, the Son of God was manifested that He might destroy the works of the devil.” Sin is of the devil. Suffering is of the devil. Sickness is of the devil. Poverty is of the devil.[24]

If ever a message needed to be preached in India, it is this, “poverty is of the devil.” Those in the West can easily claim poverty as a “divine blessing,” but poverty in its Indian expression bares no resemblance to anything “divine” or “blessing.” Poverty, starvation and homelessness that plagues low caste Hindus is nothing more than satanic.


(4) Prosperity is received by an active faith and not by a passive acceptance of all experiences being the will of God. Vargis explains,

We (Indian Christians) somehow believe, endless suffering is the lot of the believers. But I believe in what God said. As you believe, so will it happen, exactly so.  It is God who said. It has already happened [sic] it is happening and it will happen.  If you believe in poverty, suffering and sickness, you will receive them.  And if you believe in the promises of God you will receive them, one by one. “According to your faith, be it unto you”.[25]

It is this point more than any other that unites Vargis with his Western word of faith counterparts although there is no significant influence.  Vargis unearths the active nature of biblical faith in relation to receiving the promises of God. This again challenges the passive Indian worldview that is too often misses the aggressive faith demonstrated by Christ and the apostles.  When Vargis is asked why some fail to receive prosperity, he roots the failure not in the ability of God, but in some failure to receive - normally, related to faith.  Vargis consistently teaches that faith conceived in the heart should be meditated upon and confessed to become efficacious.[26]

(5) Prosperity is more than just receiving “basic” needs.  The difficulty with the prosperity gospel is defining what basic human needs are.  How does anyone define basic human needs? Cultural norms normally set the parameters for basic needs, but most would identify food, clothing and shelter as primary human needs. Vargis explains that God’s prosperity is more than that.  He writes,

Some people think that ‘daily bread’ is only chappati and daal (bread and butter).  I do not think so.  I strongly believe that it means that you can ask for everything you need on that day – from toothpaste in the morning, to breakfast, transportation, good health, education for your children, the various needs of your children, the marriage of your daughter, the admission of your son into the university, moving from a rented building to your own house, to be with your family, healing the pain in your leg, and finally for a good sleep.[27]

This expands prosperity in an Indian context to include simple luxuries that are true blessings. This is an example of the God who can “do immeasurably more than all we ask or imagine” (Ephesians 3:20).


(6) Prosperity does not promote greed, but must be balanced with a simple lifestyle. Vargis is quick not to embrace the crass materialism of some in the West who have taken the prosperity gospel to an ungodly extreme. Vargis writes, “I do not believe in (an) extreme prosperity gospel stretched beyond what God said and misused by people to raise money to live a Sultan’s life.”[28]  He is balanced in his understanding of prosperity.  Vargis wants to avoid any kind of prosperity teaching that breaks the boundaries of selflessness.  His motivation is to relieve suffering under the mandate to proclaim the gospel in its “whole person” fullness.  


Furthermore, while he preaches a strong prosperity message, he also encourages

others to live a life of simplicity.  This is his testimony.  He writes,

I live a simple life. Do not misunderstand me – I am not preaching (a) poverty gospel, neither do I practice it….I spend money if it is really necessary. I have not saved any thing [sic], money, land or (a) house for me or my children. Whatever I get for the ministry is put into the ministry…Live a simple life and give all the rest to the mission – that is my policy.[29]

Vargis’ unselfishness and sacrificial giving to the ministry of the gospel gives him a holy platform to declare his message of prosperity.  When Vargis stands to proclaim to his fellow Indians, “Come to Jesus. He will give you a house.  If you are sick, come to my Jesus.  He will heal you.  If you are poor, come to my Jesus.  He will take care of you” – he does so with nothing more than a heart of compassion.


Summary and Remarks

The prosperity gospel, which is prolific in independent charismatic ministries, is not an American gospel.  It is not a baptized version of the American dream.  It is not a case of cultural conformity.  Prosperity is a physical manifestation of the coming of the kingdom of God to counter sin and its destructive force upon creation.  Vargis’ contribution to the prosperity message is ample evidence that the prosperity gospel is not a “made in the USA” product that has been exported to the world.  Vargis began preaching a prosperity gospel by his own study of Scripture illuminated by the Holy Spirit.  Vargis brings a need balance to the prosperity gospel.  His exhortation to lead a simple life can hold the prosperity gospel in a biblical balance.  Charismatic ministries in the West can avoid much of the prosperity extremes if they would adopt Vargis’ attitude.


© 2001 Derek E. Vreeland

[1] P.G. Vargis, “Prosper in the Fruits of the Spirit,” Faith Today, (June 1999), 2.

[2] Allan Anderson, “The Forgotten Dimension: Education for Pentecostal-Charismatic Spirituality in Global Perspective,” Unpublished paper, Society for Pentecostal Studies, March 2001.

[3] Roger E. Hedlund, professor of Mission Studies at Serampore College writes, “ (The) Indian Evangelical Team stands as an outstanding example of such a movement which is an authentic, Indian incarnation of Christianity.  The Indian Evangelical Team (IET) in 1996 was reported the largest indigenous mission in India with 1032 pioneer missionaries in 14 states.  Letter to P.G. Vargis published in the Silver Jubilee Souvenir (New Delhi: Faith Publications, 1997), 10.

[4] Focusing on one part of a person’s theology creates the temptation to form a caricature of that person that is one-dimensional.  I want to avoid that temptation in this research project.  The scope of my research is limited to Vargis’ theology of prosperity, but this is not necessarily his doctrinal emphasis.

[5] David Harrell, All Things are Possible, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975), 229.

[6] Ibid.  His use of “almost” qualifies his statement somewhat and prevents him from overstating the point.  The degree at which prosperity began to be preached by the independent healing evangelists is questionable, but Harrell’s dating of the emergence of the doctrine is accurate.

[7] For example, Bishop Dan T. Muse, who later became the General Superintendent of the Pentecostal Holiness Church, recorded the offerings that he received as an evangelist in the 1920s.  The offerings he received for the week ranged from $0.50 to $9.00, if he received anything.  See “The Diary of Bishop Dan T. Muse: Ordination and Early Ministry” compiled by the Holy Spirit Research Center, Oral Roberts University, 1996.

[8] Oral Roberts, My Favorite Bible Scriptures, (Tulsa: Oral Roberts Evangelistic Association, 1963), 47.

[9] Some scholars note that material blessings such as prosperity may go further back to ministers like E.W. Kenyon.  Dale Simmons writes, “Kenyon usually stressed healing and a sufficient financial supply as the two most tangible returns on one’s spiritual investment.”  Dale Simmons, E.W. Kenyon and the Postbellum Pursuit of Peace, Power, and Plenty, (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press,  1997), 235.  

[10] Edward Pousson, Spreading the Flame: Charismatic Churches and Missions Today, (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1992), 48.

[11] Quentin J. Schultze, Televangelism and American Culture, (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1991), 135. In an earlier statement, Schultze embraces poverty as the will of God.  He writes, “Is not poverty, and sometimes even bankruptcy, a blessing?”  This he writes with an understood affirmative response.   See also Gordon Fee, The Disease of the Health & Wealth Gospels, (Costa Mesa, CA: Agora Ministries, 1979, 1,2. D.R. McConnell, A Different Gospel: Updated Edition, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995) 179. Hank Hanegraaff, Christianity in Crisis, (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1997), 186-7.


[12] P.G. & Lilly Vargis, Convictions Shaking India with the Love of Jesus, (New Delhi: Faith Publications, 1995), 22.

[13] Ibid, 25.

[14] P.G. Vargis, “Untitled Editorial,” Faith Today, (May 2000), 1,2.

[15] P.G. Vargis, The Key To Miracles, (New Delhi: Faith Publications, 1984), 19.

[16] Personal interview with P.G. Vargis August 15, 2001.

[17] These are six primary themes in Vargis’ teaching on prosperity, although he has made other remarks on the subject.  Also because the term “prosperity” or “prosperity gospel” has received such negative criticism, he often prefers to use the term “biblical blessings.”

[18] Email from Aby Kallimel Vargis dated December 11, 2001.  Aby confirmed that Vargis (his father) was not strongly influenced by Kenneth Hagin or Kenneth Copeland.

[19] P.G. Vargis, “The Prayer of Jabez is my Prayer Today and Everyday,” Faith Today, (July 2001), 41.

[20] Vargis, The Key to Miracles, 40.

[21] Vargis quotes Prov 27:1; II Cor 6:2; Ps 51:1-12; Jer 17:14; John 8:32, 36; Mark 11:23,24; II Chr 7:14; Jer 31:34; II Kgs 20:5,6; Jer 30:17; Hosea 6:1; Luke 4:18; I Pet 2:24; Ps 72:12; Eze 13:21; Dan 3:29; II Pet 2:9; Ps 50:15; Ps 91:3,5,6,10,11,14-16; Titus 1:2; Num 23:19.

[22] P.G. Vargis, Real Peace, (New Delhi: Faith Publications, 1997), 45.

[23] Vargis, The Key to Miracles, 23.

[24] P.G. Vargis, Untitled Editorial, Faith Today (May 2000), 3.

[25] Vargis, The Key to Miracles, 44.

[26] See Vargis, The Key to Miracles, 46.

[27] P.G. Vargis, Untitled Editorial, Faith Today (July 1999), 2.

[28] P.G. Vargis, “Prosper in the Fruits of the Spirit,” Faith Today, (June 1999), 2.

[29] P.G. Vargis, “This is What God Did,” Silver Jubilee Souvenir (New Delhi: Faith Publications, 1997), 78,79.

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